What are the enabling conditions and driving forces for nature-based solutions in the context of urban sustainability transitions? And how do innovation pathways play a role for nature-based solutions? Innovation pathways are a journey: from the initial idea and its demonstration, to its broader uptake within policy, industry and society. The Innovation Pathways Directory provides an entry point to explore and better understand innovation pathways for nature-based solutions. It presents 12 examples of nature-based solutions, and illustrates the findings through: four targets (happy and healthy cities, water friendly cities, renaturing cities, and resilient and thriving cities); three processes (crisis to connectivity, marginal to mainstream, government to governance); and four actions (leading & visioning, governing & collaborating, experimenting & learning, and mobilising & financing).