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International Survey of the Costs of Assessment for Environmental Product Declarations

  • Tomohiro Tasaki
  • Koichi Shobatake
  • Kenichi Nakajima
  • Carl Dalhammar
Publishing year: 2017
Language: English
Pages: 727-731
Publication/Series: Procedia CIRP
Volume: 61
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Elsevier

Abstract english

Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) are used to communicate product's environmental performances to relevant stakeholders, whereas Product Category Rules (PCRs) provide guidelines for making EPDs in different product categories. Little is known regarding the cost for developing EPDs and PCRs. We therefore conducted an international survey, and 15 responses from EPD certification operators were collected. The total cost for creating a PCR and an EPD, was in the range USD 13,000-41,000 and the workload was 22-44 person-days. Our survey revealed eight breakdown costs as well. Multiple regression analysis showed several statistical relationships between cost/workload and characteristics of EPD programs.


  • Environmental Management
  • assessment cost
  • environmental product performance
  • life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • product category rule (PCR)
  • type III eco-label


  • ISSN: 2212-8271
Carl Dalhammar
E-mail: carl [dot] dalhammar [at] iiiee [dot] lu [dot] se

International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)

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