In the light of oil security concerns, the threat of climate change, and a desire to leverage competitive advantage for Sweden and its industries, the Swedish Government has announced a new policy target – the creation of the conditions necessary to break Sweden’s dependence on oil and fossil fuels by 2020. Notably, the Swedish Government stresses national opportunities and highlights two aspects in this regard. The first being the creation of general advantages for an economy substantially divorced from oil market fluctuations. The second being the aspiration to foster an industry sector hosting successful actors in export markets for alternative energy solutions, particularly biofuels and bioenergy (at times referred to as Sweden’s green gold). Additionally, there is an explicit interest to leverage the comparative advantage offered by Sweden’s forests and vibrant forestry sector.