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  • Alesia Israilava
  • Philip Peck
Publishing year: 2008
Language: English
Document type: Report
Publisher: Stockholm Environmental Institute

Abstract english

This report titled Best available technologies and techniques for large point sources has been prepared within the framework of the programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC), Phase III conducted during the period 2005-2008. RAPIDC is funded by the Department of Infrastructure and Economic Cooperation (INEC) of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SIDA. It is coordinated by the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI) and carried out in collaboration with Swedish Universities and research organisations together with inter-governmental agencies and research organisation in Asia and Africa.

This report is largely focused on eight countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka that are signatories to the Malé Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution and Its Likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia. The Malé Declaration developed from the policy dialogue held in 1998 under the auspices of UNEP as part of the RAPIDC programme. This report is produced in response to the Malé Activity 5.3 Sector based approaches to prevention and control ( addressing sub-activity 5.3.1 Sector specific mitigation).

The report is focused on thermal power plants and large-scale industrial facilities such as steel plants, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, fertilizer production facilities, cement plants, pulp and paper plants etc., which are often labelled point sources. These sectors are major generators of air pollution. In general, the report can be divided into two parts.

- The first part seeks to provide an overview of these industrial sectors in the Malé countries. It starts with a general description of the sector (separately for each Malé country in which the sector is present) and provides details of ownership, number and distribution of the production units and so forth. Content then shifts to the description of pollutants and emissions levels, and finally, it discusses current activity levels in terms of installed capacities and production levels and the expected growth.

- The second part of the report is devoted to the description of the status of best available technologies in these industrial sectors worldwide. Each of the sectors mentioned above is described in terms of technologies deployed in the production process and main air pollutants. Best available technologies and emerging techniques are then discussed. These can be totally new processes and new process stages as well as process-integrated and end-of-pipe technologies addressing air pollutant reduction. Where possible, emission levels associated with these techniques and technologies are given in each sub-chapter.

This report is intended to provide decision-makers in the Malé countries with an overview of the current state of their industrial sectors and technologies available in the world. Moreover, it seeks to provide the opportunity to evaluate possible reduction of emissions when introducing new facilities within the industrial sectors as well as upgrading existing ones.


  • Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
  • air pollution
  • best available technology
  • developing countries
  • emissions levels
  • thermal power
  • iron and steel
  • petroleum refinery
  • cement
  • chemicals
  • fertilisers
  • pulp and paper


  • Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC)
Philip Peck
E-mail: philip [dot] peck [at] iiiee [dot] lu [dot] se

International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)

Lund University P.O. Box 196, 22100 Lund, Sweden
Visiting Address: Tegnérsplatsen 4,Lund

Telephone: + 46 46 222 00 00 Fax: + 46 46 222 02 10