The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Naoko Tojo

Naoko Tojo

Senior lecturer

Naoko Tojo

Proposals for targets and indicators for waste prevention in four waste streams


  • David Watson
  • Leonidas Milios
  • Ioannis Bakas
  • Márton Herczeg
  • Birgitte Kjær
  • Naoko Tojo

Summary, in English

This study, commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers, aimed toprovide first proposals for targets and indicators that can be used in the Nordic countries' waste prevention programmes. Four waste streams were considered: food waste, construction- and demolition waste (C&D waste), waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and textile waste. Firstly, a literature review of international experiences was conducted regarding waste prevention policy, waste definitions, target setting and use of indicators for the respective four waste streams. Secondly, based on the findings from the literature as well as experiences of the project team, proposals for targets and indicators were developed. A total of 48 potential indicators were developed, split between the four waste streams ranging from 8 for C&D waste to 16 for food waste. Following identification of potentially relevant indicators, data components

which could be used to build them were identified with emphasis as

far as possible on existing data, supplemented by data that could be collected at acceptable cost. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each indicator was subsequently assessed using the RACER indicator assessment system. Simultaneously, targets for each stream were proposed, taking into account the characteristics of the targets-specific, measurable and monitorable,precise and time bound-indicated by the Nordic Council Ministers. Finally, potentially useful targets and indicator pairs were suggested for the respective waste stream.


  • The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics

Publishing year








Document type



Nordic Council of Ministers


  • Social Sciences Interdisciplinary


  • waste prevention
  • indicator
  • target
  • food waste
  • construction and demolition waste (C&D Waste)
  • waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
  • textile waste
  • Nordic



Report number



  • ISBN: 978-92-893-2548-6