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Leonidas Milios

Leonidas Milios

Postdoctoral fellow

Leonidas Milios

Policies for Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions : A review of concepts, current policy landscape and future policy considerations for the transition to a Circular Economy


  • Leonidas Milios

Summary, in English

This report presents basic concepts around resources, resource efficiency and the Circular Economy. The limitations and the opportunities within the Circular Economy are identified and clearly presented. The current policy landscape in the EU as well as in Sweden is thoroughly analysed and a set of policy areas with a significant untapped potential for resource efficiency is identified. The policy areas which have been underutilised so far include policies for re-use, repair and remanufacturing; green public procurement and procurement for innovation with resource savings embedded in their design; policies to facilitate waste markets and improve take-back infrastructure; economic instruments targeting resources; and policies promoting sustainable consumption. Together with these promising policy areas, a roadmap for designing such policies within policy packages is presented with the aim to facilitate the promotion of dynamic policy mixing, which is better suited for addressing the multi-level challenges of the Circular Economy. Finally, an agenda for future research in resource efficiency policies is discussed and the need for a bottom-up perspective –in par with overarching resource strategies – is emphasised.


  • The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics

Publishing year




Document type



  • Environmental Management


  • Circular Economy
  • Resource efficiency
  • policy-mix
  • policymaking
  • Policies and strategies
  • policies
  • resources