With the recent expansions of the European Union, there are now 12 new member states that are implementing European policy. One of these policies, with implications for energy production and security, is the Common Agricultural Policy. This article will focus on the impact the Common Agricultural Policy can have on farmers in Poland who have been encouraged by calls to cultivate energy crops. In addition, this article investigates the barriers recognized by farmers in Poland to cultivating energy crops, willow in particular. The identified barriers were grouped into four categories: financial, informational, organisational, and market factors. It was also observed that levels of subsidies for energy crops differ between established member states (EU15) and new member states (EU27). Finally, this article discusses how small farmers can create cooperative links and find markets for energy products as one possible step towards increasing Poland’s renewable energy production.