In the context of the emerging bioeconomy, the production and use of biofuels for transport is expanding rapidly around the world. This development presents both exciting opportunities and significant risks. Not least because biofuels are intimately connected to (and impacting on) food, water, climate and economic systems. The implications of different production chains and the international trade of biofuels is attracting interest from a range of actors across government, industry, society and academia. The purpose of this paper is to explore the viewpoints of key stakeholders (focusing on bioenergy, environmental, and scientific organisations) on the global governance of biofuels for transport. The key stakeholders investigated in this paper include: the World Bioenergy Association and the Global Bioenergy Partnership; Friends of the Earth and the World Wide Fund for Nature; and the Nuffield Council on Bioethics and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment. This paper explores the governance of biofuels for transport through the analytical problems defined by the Earth System Governance Project, which encompass architecture, agency, adaptiveness, accountability, and allocation and access. With the analytical problems as a foundation, this paper argues that the global governance of biofuels demands critical attention.