Publisher: International Society for Ecological Economics
The paper examines and illustrates different trends in relation to historical energy use-related intensities and corresponding CO2 emission trends. The methodology encompasses a decomposition quantitative approach for estimating decoupling trends to energy use and economic and demographic parameters driving CO2 emission levels. The analysis covers both global and regional trends for the period 1971 to 2007. The findings suggest that policy portfolios have delivered marginal improvements, with relative decoupling as a key policy component. Estimated trends show that most of the energy and carbon intensity improvements have been incapable to offset the effects of population growth and the expansion of the global economic system. Demand for energy continues to growth despite ongoing structural changes. CO2 emissions have continued to rise in most regions of the world regardless of technology improvements. Energy and carbon-related equity aspects are discussed in the light of the carrying capacity of the climatic system and development issues. Whereas the findings support that sustainable energy and climate policy ought to be built on energy efficiency, sufficiency must also become an important foundation in the policy agenda of rich nations.